The large, almost statue like, relief is about 8 meters in height and 4.5 meters in width and located in Sipylus Mountain (Spilos, Sipil) near Manisa in the locality of Akpınar. The badly worn out relief appears to be a seated figure, carved into a large niche. For a long time it was thought to be a seated goddess (cf. the 3rd picture below). However the recent consensus among several scholars is that the figure is a male with a beard, possibly a Hittite mountain god representation. There are two inscriptions by the relief/statue, one to its right and one to the left. The one on the left, which is a relief-type inscription, is read by Bossert as Ku(wa)lanamuwa or Ku(wa)lamuwa. This name also appears in Gezbeli and İmamkulu monuments, although it is less likely to be a reference to the same person. About 3 meters to the right of the head is a second inscription carved into the rock. First part might be read Zu(wa)-wa/i-ni EUNUCHUS2 (Hawkins), possibly followed by another epithet. There is not a way to date the monument to a certain time but 14th or 13th century BCE is generally accepted. Although originally a Hittite/Luwian monument, it was also a popular attraction in the later ages and was believed to have been a representation of the goddess Kybele. It is known that in Lydian times religious ceremonies were conducted by the monument.
Click on the pictures for larger images.
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Tayfun Bilgin, 2012.
Illustrated London News, 1880.
Hörst Ehringhaus, 2005.
Hans G. Güterbock, 1983.
Massimo Poetto, 1988.