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Fraktin Relief

This relief from the mid-13th century BCE is located near the Gümüşören (Fraktin) village of Develi, about 78 km to the city of Kayseri. Sculptured rock-panel shows two groups of figures in a religious act. The figures are identified by labels in Luwian hieroglyphs. The relief was first written about by Sayce in 1880. It is about 1.3 meters by 3.2 meters in size. The scene on the left shows Hittite king Hattusili III pouring libation to a male god. He is identified with the hieroglyph characters in front of him as "Great King Hattusili". The scene on the right shows Hattusili's wife "Great Queen Puduhepa", depicted clothed from head to foot in her priestess robe, pouring libation to the goddess Hebat. This scene on the right is in unfinished condition and the figures lack details. Both scenes have an altar in the middle. There is a bird figure on the altar in the left scene, and possibly a piece of bread on the right scene. Further to the right of the reliefs, there is also an unfinished inscription in hieroglyphic Luwian, which has been read by Hans Güterbock as "daughter of the country of Kizzuwatna, beloved of the gods" This certainly refers to Puduhepa, who was a daughter of a priest from Kizzuwatna (Cilicia). Hattusili is shown with a horned hat like the gods, and this may mean the relief was made after his death during the reign of his son Tudhaliya IV. Thus it should date to the second half of the 13th century BCE. The plateau above the relief has at least two libation holes, which further indicate that the site was used for religious ceremonies. A replica of the relief can be seen in Kayseri Museum.

Click on the pictures for larger images.

T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 Hattusili libating to the god - T. Bilgin, 2009 Puduhepa and Hebat - T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 K. Kohlmeyer, 1983 K. Kohlmeyer, 1983 Libation holes - T. Bilgin, 2009 Libation hole - T. Bilgin, 2009

Alexander, R. L. "Contributions to the interpretation of the Fraktın reliefs," ICH III, 1998: 15–20.
Gonnet, H. "Remarques sur le monument de Beşkardeş à la lumière d'une nouvelle interpretation de Fraktın," ICH III, 247–59.
Hawkins, J. D. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Vol 3, Berlin, 2024: 12–14 and plts. 2–3.
Kohlmeyer, K. "Felsbilder der hethitischen Großreichszeit", APA 15, 1983: 7–154 (67–74).
Laroche E. "Les reliefs de Fraktin," FsT.Özgüç 1989: 301–2.
Laroche E. "Les deux reliefs de Firaktin," Anadolu 23, 1984: 123–29.
Özgüç, T. "Excavations at Fraktin near Develi and Researches in Anti-Taurus Region," Belleten 12, 1948: 266–67.
Özgüç, T. "Finds at Firaktin," Belleten 19, 1955: 301–7.
Ussishkin, D. "Hollows, 'Cup-Marks', and Hittite Stone Monuments," AnSt 25, 1975: 85–103.
(List of Abbreviations)

Image sources:
Tayfun Bilgin, 2009.
Kay Kohlmeyer, 1983.