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İmamkulu Relief

This 3.6 by 2 meters relief is carved on the flattened surface of a large boulder, also known as Şimşekkaya (Ligthning Rock), near the village of İmamkulu at Develi in the province of Kayseri. It was first reported in 1934 during a survey by M. Kemaleddin Karamete. The relief shows a male figure with a bow and spear on the left side and the Hieroglyphic Luwian label above this figure is read Kuwalanamuwa with the "prince" title antithetically on the left and right. The same name is also attested on Hanyeri relief which is located at a short distance to the south. In the middle is a figure of the Storm-God on his bull drawn chariot and the Hieroglyphic Luwian signs in front of the figure identifies him as the Storm God of Aleppo. The Storm God and the chariot are carried above the bowed down heads of three mountain gods and below them are three animal headed beings. Identity of the figure on the right side has been less certain. It may be a female deity, perhaps Shaushka shown above a lion-headed multiple-winged awiti creature. The relief probably dates to the 13th century BCE.

Click on the pictures for larger images.

B. Bilgin, 2009 B. Bilgin, 2009 E. Anıl, 2009 K. Bittel, 1976 K. Kohlmeyer, 1983 E. Ehringhaus, 2005

Ehringhaus, H. Götter, Herrscher, Inschriften. Die Felsreliefs der hethitischen Großreichszeit in der Türkei. Mainz, 2005: 70–80.
Hawkins, J. D. "The Storm-God Seal of Mursili III," FsHoffner, 2003: 169–75.
Hawkins, J. D. “Hittite Monuments and Their Sanctity,” StAs 9, 2015: 1–10.
Hawkins, J. D. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Vol 3, Berlin, 2024: 92–94 and plt. 65–66.
Hazenbos, J. "Zum Imamkulu-Relief", FsPopko, 2002: 147–61.
Kohlmeyer, K. "Felsbilder der hethitischen Großreichszeit", APA 15, 1983: 7–154 (80–86).
Stokkel, P. J. “A New Perspective on Hittite Rock Reliefs,” Anatolica 31, 2005: 171–88.
Wäfler, M. 1975. "Zum Felsrelief von Imamkulu," MDOG 107: 17–26.
(List of Abbreviations)

Image sources:
Bora Bilgin, 2009.
Ertuğrul Anıl, 2009.
Kurt Bittel, Die Hethiter, München, 1976.
Kay Kohlmeyer, 1983.
Horst Ehringhaus, 2005.