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İmamkulu Relief

This 3.6 by 2 meters relief is carved on the flattened surface of a large boulder, also known as Şimşekkaya (Ligthning Rock), near the village of İmamkulu at Develi in the province of Kayseri. It was first reported in 1934 during a survey by M. Kemaleddin Karamete. The relief shows a male figure with a bow and spear on the left side and the Hieroglyphic Luwian label above this figure is read Kuwalanamuwa (EXERCITUS.BOS[+MI]) with the prince (REX.FILIUS) title antithetically on the left and right. The same name is also attested on Hanyeri relief which is located at a short distance to the south. In the middle is a figure of the Storm-God on his bull drawn chariot and the Hieroglyphic Luwian signs in front of the figure identifies him as the Storm God of Aleppo (DEUS.TONITRUS HALPA.MI). The Storm God and the chariot are carried above the bowed down heads of three mountain gods and below them are three animal headed beings. Identity of the figure on the right side has been less certain. It may be a female deity, perhaps Shaushka shown above a lion-headed multiple-winged awiti creature. The relief probably dates to the 13th century BCE.


Click on the pictures for larger images.

T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 K. Bittel, 1976
K. Kohlmeyer, 1983 E. Ehringhaus, 2005



Literure:
Ehringhaus, H. Götter, Herrscher, Inschriften. Die Felsreliefs der hethitischen Großreichszeit in der Türkei. Mainz: Zabern, 2005: 70-80.
Hawkins, J. D. "The Storm-God Seal of Mursili III," in G. Beckman, R. Beal, and G. McMahon (eds.) Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner, Jr.
     on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday,
Winona Lake, 2003: 169-175.
Hawkins, J. D. “Hittite Monuments and Their Sanctity,” In A. D’Agostino, V. Orsi, and G. Torri (eds.), Sacred Landscapes of the Hittites and Luwians,
     Studia Asiana 9. Firenze, 2015: 1-10.
Hazenbos, J. "Zum Imamkulu-Relief", in P. Taracha (ed.), Silva Anatolica (FsPopko), Warsaw, 2002: 147-161.
Kohlmeyer, K. "Felsbilder der hethitischen Großreichszeit", Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica 15, 1983: 7-154 (80-86).
Stokkel, P. J. “A New Perspective on Hittite Rock Reliefs,” Anatolica 31, 2005: 171-88.
Wäfler, M. 1975. "Zum Felsrelief von Imamkulu," MDOG 107: 17-26.

Image sources:
Tayfun Bilgin, Bora Bilgin, Ertuğrul Anıl, 2009.
Kurt Bittel, Die Hethiter, Beck, 1976.
Kay Kohlmeyer, 1983.
Horst Ehringhaus, 2005.