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Zincirli (Sam'al)

Sam'al was the capital of a Neo-Hittite/Aramaen kingdom of the region from about 10th century to 7th century BCE. It was first excavated by German Oriental Society between 1888 and 1902. They found a heavily fortified citadel within a larger double walled fortification with 100 bastions and three gates. Excavations revealed giant statues of lions, and numerous orthostats and inscriptions, mainly in Aramaic, Phoenician. Most of the finds are in Istanbul Archeology Museum and Pergamon Museum in Berlin.



Click on the picture for a larger image.

The Citadel
Plan of the City Plan of the Citadel 3D Citadel Plan-Pergamon Museum Berlin
Outer City Gate (South Gate)
Reconstructed drawing of outer city gates Outer gates - Mounted warrior Outer gates orthostat - B.Bilgin Outer gates orthostat - B.Bilgin Outer gates orthostat - B.Bilgin Outer gates orthostat - B.Bilgin Outer gates orthostat - B.Bilgin
Outer Citadel Gate - West Wing Orthostats
Drawing of outer citadel Chariot scene - B.Bilgin In situ orthostats Noble couple at dinning - 9th century BCE - Istanbul - B.Bilgin photo B.Bilgin photo B.Bilgin
J.H.Haynes,1881 or 1882, Harvard University Library In situ orthostats
Outer Citadel Gate - East Wing Orthostats
Mounted warrior with a severed head Storm god Goddess Warrior god
Sphinx and Lions
Gate lion - Hilani III Gate lions - Inner citadel Gate lion - Inner citadel Gate lion Gate Lion - Hilani P Gate lion Gate lion Gate lion
Sphinx Column base - Hilani III Column base - T.Bilgin Column base - Northern Hall Sphinx relief - Hilani II Right view, Louvre Museum - B.Bilgin Left view, Louvre Museum - B.Bilgin
Lion King Kilamuwas and a servant - 9th century BCE - Berlin - E.Akurgal Funerary stele - Dining scene - 8th century BCE - Berlin - F.Anıl Palace Officials Procession, Hilani III, 8th century BCE, Istanbul - B.Bilgin Palace Officials, Hilani III, 8th century BCE, Istanbul - B.Bilgin Musicians, 8th century BCE, Istanbul - B.Bilgin Bar-Rakib praying, Aramaean inscriptions, 8th century BCE, Istanbul - B.Bilgin Banquet scene, Aramaean inscriptions in Hittite language, 9th century BCE, Istanbul - B.Bilgin Basalt stele of a nobleman, Gaziantep Museum - B.Bilgin
From Northern Hall
Servant - Hilani IV Bar-Rakib and scribe - Hilani IV - F.Anıl Goat-bearer - Northern Hall Musicians Phoenician inscription of King Kilamuwa from Hilani J
Statue of a King from Hilani J
Statue of a King from Hilani J Statue of a King from Hilani J Statue of a King from Hilani J Statue of a King from Hilani J Statue of a King from Hilani J Statue of a King from Hilani J



Image sources:
Kurt Bittel, Die Hethiter, Beck, München 1976, ISBN 3406030246.
Bora Bilgin, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2013.
Ekrem Akurgal, The Hattian and Hittite Civilizations, KTB, Ankara, 2001.
Tayfun Bilgin, 2006.
Harvard University Library
Figen Anıl, 2012.


Kings of Sam'al (with approximate reign)
(from: Lipinski, E. The Aramaeans, 2000)

Gabbar (ca. 900-880)
Banihu, son/brother(?) of Gabbar (ca. 880-870)
Hayyan, son/descendant(?) of Gabbar (ca. 870-850)
Sa`il, son of Hayyan (ca. 850-840)
Kilamuwa, son of Hayyan (ca. 840-810)
Qarli (ca. 810-790)
Panammuwa I. (ca. 790-750)
Bar-Sur (ca. 750-745)
an usurper (ca. 745-740)
Panammuwa II (ca. 740-733)
Bar-Rakib (ca. 733-713)